THE USE OF HYDROMETALLURGY IN TREATMENT OF SECONDARY RAW MATERIALS AND LOW – GRADE ORES

Olof Forsén, Jari Aromaa

Abstract


The available raw material types for metals production are primary high-grade ores, primary low – grade ores and secondary raw materials. Treatment of primary raw materials is often easier than treatment of secondary materials as the latter ones can have metals in combinations never found in nature. The basic phenomena in treating primary and secondary materials are the same. Thermodynamics and reaction kinetics are the same when applied to pure metals or compounds. The differences are in the complexity of the raw material that has strong influence on selectivity. Leaching of complex low – grade materials and secondary materials can result in higher chemical and energy consumption. The solution purification after leaching complex low – grade and secondary materials can also be technically more difficult than when operating with primary high – grade materials. This is due to higher number of metals in the solution. The origin of raw materials has no influence on production of metals from purified solutions.


Keywords


processing; minerals; secondary raw materials; hydrometallurgy; thermodynamics; electrochemistry

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12776/ams.v19i3.160

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SJR 2014: 0.502 - Q2 Metals and Alloys, 39./125.

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