Co-creation as a Success Factor in the Development of Constructive Customer-Focused Dialogues

Anna Mårtensson, Pernilla Ingelsson, Ingela Bäckström


Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the process of co-creating a dialogue model that aims to increase citizen value in a municipality organisation. In addition, the purpose is to present the results from the development process and to evaluate the chosen dialogue model.

Methodology/Approach: A dialogue model was developed through a co-creation process with a series of workshops, discussions and interactive tasks. The whole process was carried out in three steps. In the first step, the success factors of a constructive dialogue based on citizen value were identified. In the second step, several dialogue models were developed, tested and evaluated, and one dialogue model was chosen. In the third step, the chosen dialogue model was evaluated.

Findings: An evaluation of a real-life use of the dialogue model supports the finding that the process delivers a dialogue model that enables the required prerequisites for constructive dialogues: for example, the opportunity to prepare, to create structured and transparent documentation, and to enable a holistic view of the dialogue model. A co-creation that involved co-workers contributed to developing a dialogue model that could be adapted to the co-workers’ own context.

Research Limitation/implication: This study is conducted in a single organization, hence no generalizable conclusions can be made.

Originality/Value of paper: Using a co-creative process when developing and realising a dialogue model enhances the possibility of adapting the model to an organisation’s specific context.


co-creation; customer focus; dialogue model; A3; holistic view

Full Text:



Asif, M., Joost de Bruijn, E., Douglas, A. and Fisscher, O., 2009. Why quality management programs fail: A strategic and operations management perspective. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, [e-journal] 26(8), pp.778-794. DOI: 10.1108/02656710910984165.

Bäckström, I., 2009. On the relationship between sustainable health and quality management: leadership and organizational behaviours from Swedish organizations. PhD. Östersund, Mid Sweden University.

Bergman, B. and Klefsjö, B., 2010. Quality: From customer needs to customer satisfaction. Lund: Studentlitteratur.

Campbell, C.R., 2004. Longitudinal Study of One Organization’s Culture: Do Values Endure?. American Journal of Business, [e-journal] 19(2), pp.41-52. DOI: 10.1108/19355181200400011.

Carlson, C.R. and Wilmot, W.W., 2006. Innovation the Five Disciplines for Creating what Customers Want. New York: Crown Publishing Group.

Carmeli, A., Gelbard, R. and Reitner-Palmon, R., 2013. Problem-solvning capacity, and creative performance: The importance of knowledge sharing. Human Resource Management, 52(1), pp.95-122.

Chatman, J.A. and Eunyoung Cha, S., 2003. Leading by Leveraging Culture. California Management Review, 45(4), pp.20-34.

Cooperrider, D. and Whitney, D., 2005. Appreciative Inquiry: A positive revolution in change. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Cronemyr, P., 2007. Six Sigma Management: action research with some contributions to theories and methods. PhD. Chalmers University of Technology. Available at: < > [Accessed 08 July 2020].

Dahlgaard, J., Kristensen, K. and Kanji, G., 2002. Fundamentals of Total Quality Management. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes.

Flynn, B.B., Schroeder, R.G. and Sakakibara, S., 1994. A framework for quality management research and an associated measurement instrument. Journal of Operations management, 11(4), pp.339-366.

Gassmann, O. and Enkel, E., 2004. Towards a theory of open innovation: Three core process archetypes. In: RADMA (Research and Developlent Management Association), Proceedings of the R&D Management Conference. Lissabon.

Grönfeldt, S. and Strother, J., 2006. Service leadership: the quest for competitive advantage. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: SAGE Publications.

Gutiérrez-García, E., Recalde, M. and Piñera-Camacho, A., 2015. Reinventing the wheel? A comparative overview of the concept of dialogue. Public Relations Review, [e-journal] 41(5), pp.744-753. DOI: 10.1016/j.pubrev.2015.06.006.

Hamilton, M.L. and Pinnegar, S., 2015. Knowing, Becoming, doing as Teacher Educators: Identity, Intimate Scholarship, Inquiry. Emerald Publishing Group Limited.

Hammer, M., 1996. Beyond reengineering: how the process-centred organization is changing our work and our lives. New York: Harper business.

Hellsten, U. and Klefsjö, B., 2000. TQM as a management system consisting of values, techniques and tools. The TQM Magazine, [e-journal] 12(4), pp.238-244. DOI: 10.1108/09544780010325822.

Ingelsson, P., Eriksson, M. and Lilja, J., 2012. Can selecting the right values help TQM implementation? A case study about organisational homogeneity at the Walt Disney Company. Total Quality Management, [e-journal] 23(1), pp.1-11. DOI: 10.1080/14783363.2011.637801.

Kristensson, P., Gustafsson, A. and Witell, L., 2014. Tjänsteinnovation. Lund: Studentlitteratur.

Lagrosen, Y., Bäckström, I. and Wiklund, H., 2012. Approach for measuring health-related quality management. The TQM Journal, [e-journal] 24(1), pp.59-71. DOI: 10.1108/17542731211191221.

Leavy, B., 2012. Collaborative innovation as the new imperative – design thinking, value co-creation and the power if “pull”. Strategy & Leadership, [e-journal] 40(2), pp.25-34. DOI: 10.1108/10878571211209323.

Lee, S., Hwang, T. and Choi, D., 2012. Open innovation in the public sector of leading countries. Management Decision, [e-journal] 50(1), pp.147-162. DOI: 10.1108/00251741211194921.

Lee, S., Olson, D. and Trimi, S., 2012. Co-innovation: Convergenomics, collaboration, and co-creation for organizational values. Management Decision, [e-journal] 50(5), pp.817-831. DOI: 10.1108/00251741211227528.

Moore, M.H., 1995. Creating public value: Strategic Management in Government. Cambridge Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Oh, H., 1999. Service quality, customer satisfaction, and customer value: A holistic perspective. International Journal of Hospitality Management, [e-journal] 18(1), pp.67-82. DOI: 10.1016/S0278-4319(98)00047-4.

Seddon, J. and Caulkin, S., 2007. Systems Thinking, Lean Production and Action Learning. Action Learning: Research and Practice, 4(1), pp.9-24. DOI: 10.1080/14767330701231438.

Senge, P., 1999. The dance of change: The challenge to sustaining momentum in learning organizations. New York: Doubleday.

SFS (Statens Författningssamling), 2017. Kommunallag (2017:725). Finansdepartementet K: SFS. Available at: < > [Accessed 20 May 2019].

Shook, J., 2011. Lean management: med hjälp av A3-analyses. Malmö: Liber.

Sveriges Kommuner och Landsting, 2019. Så styrs en kommun. Bruxelles: Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions. Available at: < > [Accessed 20 May 2019].

Taylor, F.W., 1998. The principles of scientific management. Canada, Toronto: General publishing company Ltd.

Van Thiel, S. and Leeuw, F., 2002. The performance paradox in the public sector. Public Performance and Management Review, [e-journal] 25(3), pp.267-281. DOI: 10.1080/15309576.2002.11643661.

Watkins, J.M. and Cooperrider, D., 2000. Appreciative inquiry: a transformative paradigm. OD Practitioner, 32(1), pp.6-12.

Westher, M., 2018. Organisationers främsta utmaningar: En studie med fem års horisont. Göteborg: SIQ – Institutet för Kvalitetsutveckling.

Whitney, D. and Trosten-Bloom A., 2010. The power of Appreciative Inquiry. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Wu, S., Zhang, D. and Schroeder, R., 2011. Customization of quality practices: the impact of quality culture. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, [e-journal] 28(3), pp.263-279. DOI: 10.1108/02656711111109883.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Anna Mårtensson, Pernilla Ingelsson, Ingela Bäckström

ISSN 1335-1745 (print)
ISSN 1338-984X (online)
CCBY crossref cope
Covered, abstracted, indexed in:
Clarivate Analytics Emerging Sources Citation Index; Scopus; Google Scholar; IDEAS; EconPapers; RePEc; Cabells' Directories; Google Scholar